Welcome once again to William Andrus Alcott, Ph.D, LL.D.

Please enjoy. If you find any glaring errors, be they grammatical, spelling or formatting, please write to me and let me know their location. I'll check them against the book and if they are errors, I'll fix them quickly.

If you came here directly from a library or a search engine, feel free to check out my other electronic texts.


S T O R I E S

Of

ELIOT AND THE INDIANS.

---------------

by WILLIAM A. ALCOTT.

---------------

Written for the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, and approved by the Committee of Publication.

T H I R D E D I T I O N .

B O S T O N :

MASSACHUSETTS SABBATH SCHOOL SOCIETY
Depository, No. 13 Cornhill

===================================

C O N T E N T S.
-----+-----

CHAPTER I.

Eliot's Birth and Education - Becomes a Teacher -- Afterwards becomes a Minister -- Ministers persecuted -- Resolves to go to America.

CHAPTER II.

Mr. Eliot comes to America -- Preaches in Boston -- Is settled in Roxbury -- His labors there.

CHAPTER III.

Preaching to the Indians -- Four meetings held at Nonantum -- The Indians ask for schools.

CHAPTER IV.

Establishment at Nonantum -- At Neponset-- Trouble with the Indian chief, Cutshamakin -- Curious Anecdotes, illustrating Indian Character.

CHAPTER V.

Mr. Eliot's labors with the Indians abroad -- at Pawtucket -- Nashaway -- Quaboag -- Yarmouth.

CHAPTER VI.

Civilization at Nonantum -- Schools among the Indians -- Mr. Eliot's encouragement and aid from Europe -- How he applied it -- Opposition to his efforts -- Anecdotes -- Trouble with the powaws and sachems -- Mr. Eliot's bravery.

CHAPTER VII.

Indian town at Natick -- the Foot-Bridge -- Shape of the town -- Form of the government -- Trouble with Cutshamakin -- Keeping a Fast -- an Indian Sermon -- the Indian Schoolmaster -- Indian Missionaries -- New town of Punkapog.

CHAPTER VIII.

Attempts to form the church at Natick -- Anecdote of a good child -- Story of the drunken Indians -- Their punishment -- The church finally organized -- Anecdotes of Indian kindness to the sick.

CHAPTER IX.

The Indian Bible -- Mr. Eliot's other writings -- Translations -- His Indian Grammar -- His Harmony of the Gospels -- The Indian College -- Lectures at Natick -- The Indian towns -- Number of Praying Indians in Massachusetts and Plymouth Colonies -- The Indian Preacher -- Ruins of Natick -- Sufferings of the praying Indians during Philip's War.

CHAPTER X.

Some of Mr. Eliot's opinions -- His contempt for wigs -- His hatred of tobacco -- His temperance in eating and drinking -- Early rising -- Sabbath keeping -- His benevolence -- Anecdotes of him -- His ignorance of domestic concerns -- Loss of his wife -- He ceases to preach -- Teaches the blacks -- Instructs a blind boy -- His death.

====================================

P R E F A C E.

-----+-----

The following is not designed as a full account of the life and conduct of that great and good man, JOHN ELIOT. It is rather a selection of such interesting events of his life, especially as connected with the Indians, as are happily adapted to strike the minds of the young, and lead them, if possible, to walk in the steps, or at least possess the spirit, which actuated that modern apostle. The readers of this little volume will never be situated precisely as Eliot was; but they may always be in a situation, which will require and demand the same zeal to do good, and the same untiring self-denial and perseverance.

In preparing this little volume, the writer has derived his information from various sources. But the best and most authentic account -- that from which he has drawn most largely -- is volume five of Spark's American Biography, entitled "Life of John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians, by CONVERS FRANCIS." If I have found it necessary to differ from the author of that work in religious belief, still I am greatly indebted to him for facts. I trust the following work will reach a class of our community for which that volume, however excellent, was never intended; and in this view it is presented to the public.

Boston, February, 1838.

====================================

STORIES

OF

ELIOT AND THE INDIANS
------+-------
C H A P T E R O N E.

Eliot's Birth and Education -- Becomes a Teacher -- Afterwards becomes a Minister -- Ministers persecuted -- Resolves to go to America.

EVERY one who knows any thing of the history of New England, has heard of JOHN ELIOT, the Apostle, as he was called, to the Indians. And every one, I suppose, who has heard a little about such a great and good man, will be glad to hear more. I have, therefore, collected the following facts and anecdotes respecting him; and especially respecting his efforts among the Indians.

He was born in Nasing, Essex county, England, in 1604. His parents were excellent and pious persons, and they endeavored to bring him up in the way which the Bible directs. It appears that they were, in some degree, successful; for Mr. Eliot himself used often to say, that his first years were seasoned with the fear of God, with the word, and with prayer.

But how little did the parents of young Eliot know what they were doing! How little did they dream that they were sowing seed which should spring up half a century afterward in this then western wilderness, and bring forth such glorious fruit!

Besides what Mr. Eliot's parents did for him, he had also the privilege of going through with a course of study at one of the English universities. He was an excellent scholar in almost every thing he undertook; but he was particularly fond of what is called theological learning. He was also very skillful in the study of languages.

When he had finished his course of studies at the university, he became a school-teacher. This was not, in those days, considered so honorable an employment as it now is; nor is it even now regarded as it ought to be. It is really one of the noblest professions in the world. If any of you find yourselves inclined to become teachers, do not try to shake off the feeling, but cherish it. You can do a great deal of good by teaching.

Mr. Eliot, however, was only an assistant or usher, in a grammar school. The principle master of the school was Mr. Hooker, who afterwards, like Eliot, removed to America; and who became the first minister at Hartford, in Connecticut.

Mr. Hooker was one of the best men in the world; and it was very fortunate for Mr. Eliot, as he himself afterwards owned, that he fell in with him, and became his assistant. It was this, probably, more than any thing else, that under God made Mr. Eliot what he afterwards became. It appears, that he was not only with Mr. Hooker in his school, but boarded with him in his family. He calls it a "blessed family," and says that, till he went there, he never saw the full power of true goodness, or "godliness."

Notwithstanding Mr. Eliot was very useful here, in the school, yet it appears that he was not quite satisfied with his employment. He was a very patient man, but I am afraid he had not patience enough for a schoolmaster. A schoolmaster must have very long patience indeed. He must wait, and wait, many--very many--years to see the fruit of his labors.

But in quitting school-teaching, Mr. Eliot devoted himself to another calling not less useful. It was the Christian ministry. This, however, was not a very promising profession for him. He was a non-conformist; that is, a person who would not conform to all the doctrines and duties of the Church of England; and non-conformists were not only very unpopular at that time in England, but they were actually persecuted, and in danger of imprisonment. Even the venerable Mr. Hooker, who was also a non-conformist, was obliged to fly from his native country to Holland.

Mr. Eliot was not, however, discouraged. America, the new world, was open to him and many good people were going thither. Preach he must, he thought; and preach he would, somewhere. So at last he made up his mind to come to America, and labor in his great but at that time "howling wilderness."

He was now twenty-seven years of age, and in the enjoyment of excellent health. His education, in the common sense of the term, was now fairly completed. I say in the common sense of the term, because really a person's education, especially a religious person's, is never completed till life is over, and he has reached heaven. This world is a great school, or should be, to fit people for heaven.

Mr. Eliot had, as yet, no family, to take along with him to America. But he had agreed to marry a young lady before he went; and he accordingly did marry her a year or two afterwards; and she proved a most excellent friend and companion.

It is said by some writers that Mr. Eliot not only found it difficult to preach in England, but they would not let him teach school there. I do not know how this was. At any rate, he quitted the country; and a happy thing it proved to our western world that he did.

------+-------
C H A P T E R T W O.
------+-------

Mr. Eliot comes to America -- Preaches in Boston - Is settled in Roxbury -- His labors there.

MR. ELIOT bade farewell to the shores of Great Britain on the 3rd of November, 1631, and, in a ship with about sixty other passengers, among whom was the famous Gov. Winthrop and his family, came to America, and landed at Boston. The Boston people were exceedingly glad to see him, and everything was done with they could think of to testify their joy, and to make him happy.

He had scarcely set foot on shore when the people of Boston besought him to become, for a time, their preacher. There was but one church then in Boston, and that was Mr. Wilson's; but Mr. Wilson himself, was now gone to England. Mr. Eliot very willingly agreed to "supply the pulpit," till the return of Mr. Wilson.

When Mr. Wilson returned, they had become so much attached to Mr. Eliot, that they wanted to settle him along with Mr. Wilson. You know, perhaps, that in the early history of New England, it was very common to have two ministers over one church. Or, to speak more correctly, it was customary to have a minister,--a mere teacher or sermonizer,--and a pastor, or person to go about among the people of the parish.

It was an excellent plan. If something of the kind were done now, it would save the health and life of many valuable men. Ministers have too much to do. They must either have smaller parishes, or be furnished with colleagues or assistants.

But Mr. Eliot was under an engagement, which would not permit of his settling in Boston, in any way. Before he left England, a considerable number of his Christian brethren, who love him tenderly, talked of following him to America. Mr. Eliot promised them, that if they would, and if on their arrival, he had not already formed a pastoral connection with any other church, he would become their minister. While Mr. Eliot was preaching in Boston, these people had actually arrived and settled in Roxbury, and wanted him to be their minister; and would not willingly give him up.

On the 5th of November, 1632, he was, therefore, settled as the minister of the first church in Roxbury. Here, with the assistance at different times of different gentlemen as colleagues, he continued till his death.

Mr. Eliot was an excellent minister, and greatly beloved by his people. Whatever he did, he did it with all his might; and this was peculiarly true of whatever he did in the ministry. He was, in every respect, a very hard-working man.

I have said he was minister in Roxbury till his death. This was during a period of about sixty years; for more than twenty of which he was without a colleague. When we consider, as we shall in future chapters, how much else he performed besides the labors of a faithful minister, we can scarcely avoid wondering.

But he was not only an excellent minister, he was a good husband and father, and friend and neighbor. He was the tried friend and counselor of everybody who sought his friendship. By his words of advice and instruction he cheered and encouraged, and, it is believed, saved many souls. The people regarded him as truly a father, and loved him as such; and their children hung around "to share the good man's smile."

And Mr. Eliot loved the children as heartily as they loved him. He strove to do them good in every possible way. He was ever ready to take them in his arms, like his divine Master, and bless them. No wonder, they, they loved him!
He was particularly fond of catechizing them;--a mode of religious instruction, which was once much more popular, as you know, than now. "The care of the lambs," he used to say, "is one third of the charge over the church of God." This notion he drew from the last chapter of John's Gospel, where the Savior, while he says to Peter twice, "Feed my sheep," says once also, "Feed my lambs."

He was a great friend of common schools. He also had a considerable agency in getting up a school of a higher character, at Roxbury, and when he died left part of his property to sustain it. He not only did something for schools; but he remembered them at the throne of grace, in his public and family prayers.

I have more to tell you about the character of this venerable man, after I have mentioned his labors among the Indians. What I have mentioned here, was necessary in order to make you acquainted with him. We will now proceed to other and more striking parts of his history, involving a great many curious Indian stories.

------+-------
C H A P T E R T H R E E.
------+-------

Preaching to the Indians -- Four Meetings held at Nonantum -- The Indians ask for Schools.

Mr. Eliot, living, as he did, among the American Indians, soon became quite interested in this curious people. He believed, as some other people have done, that they were descendants of the ten lost tribes of Israel. But, besides his regard for them as ancient Israelites, he had a love for them as men, and he wished to devise means to save their souls. While he was puzzling himself, from time to time, and probably asking counsel of God in prayer, the General Court of Massachusetts passed an act to encourage the diffusion of Christianity among the native Indians; and the elders of the churches were requested to consider how this could best be accomplished. This was exactly what Mr. Eliot needed to rouse him to exertion.

I should also observe, that he had already been for some time learning the Indian language. It was a slow and painful task, and would have discouraged many persons. But Mr. Eliot was not so easily discouraged. He pursued his course till he was able both to converse well with the Indians, and to translate the Bible into their language. It is said to have cost him something like two years of labor.

In learning the Indian language, Mr. Eliot was greatly assisted by a young Indian who was taken in the Pequot war, and who lived with a Mr. Calicott, of Dorchester. Mr. Eliot took this young man into his own family, and by constant conversation with him, at length accomplished his long-wished for object.

At this time, Mr. Eliot was about forty-one or forty-two years of age. This is a striking example of the late learning of languages, and of perseverance under difficulties. There are very few people in the world who would, at such an age, have surmounted such a task.

In his forty-second year, Mr. Eliot was thus prepared to preach the gospel to the Indians. He had, in the first place, taken great pain to become acquainted with them, and to this end, had conversed much with them on common topics, and especially in regard to improvement. He had already more than half persuaded some of them that they would be happier to forsake their savage life, and live like the English. A few of them had even asserted the belief that, in forty years many of the red men would be "all one" with the English; and that, in a hundred years, they would all be so.

They strongly expressed one wish, which, when we consider their unhappy fate, was truly striking. They wished to unite with -- be blended with -- the white man, and not to vanish before him. How little did they know,--how little could they have foreseen, that two centuries would almost extinguish them and all their brethren from the face of this wide empire?

Mr. Eliot was much affected by what they told him. He promised to visit them at their wigwams, and see their wives and children; and instruct them all in the truths of religion. Never were poor people more gratified than they, at the intelligence.

The time appointed for his visit was the 28th of November, 1646. on that day, Mr. Eliot, in company with three other white men, repaired to a place which was afterwards called Nonantum. It was in the north-east part of Newton near the bounds of Watertown; only seven or eight miles from Roxbury. This was the spot which had the honor of being the first civilized and christianized settlement in North America.

The place at which they were to assemble to meet the Indians with their wives and children, was the house of a leading Indian by the name of Waban. This man had long shown himself very friendly to the English, and had even consented to place his oldest son at one of the schools at Dedham. This son had now come home to be present at the meeting.

When Mr. Eliot and his three friends approached Waban's wigwam, they were met by Waban and others, and many salutations were exchanged. They were then conducted into the wigwam, where they found quite a large and quiet company collected, eager to hear what they good man should say.

The exercises were commenced by a prayer in English, and followed by a plain, pithy sermon, in the Indian tongue. The Indians were pleased with the discourse; and after the sermon was over, asked a great many questions, some of which were truly curious. But Mr. Eliot and his company answered them as well as they could; and generally to their satisfaction.

It was a singular meeting, and lasted more than three hours. One would think this was a great mistake, and that an hour would have been long enough for a people so unaccustomed to such things. But they did not seem to be weary. They not only requested their visitors to come again, but said they should like to join the English and build a town, and all live together. Mr. Eliot promised to do every thing he could for them; and al least to attend another meeting. He and his friends then gave the men some tobacco, and the children some apples, and left them. It does not appear that he had yet become so mortal an enemy to tobacco as he became a few years afterwards.

A similar meeting was held a fortnight afterwards as agreed upon, at Waban's wigwam. The number of people that attended was however much greater than before; and the questions proposed by the Indians still more curious.

Among the rest, one very old man asked whether it was not too late for him to repent and seek God. They also asked how it came to pass that sea-water was also, and land water fresh; and if they water were higher than the earth, why did it not overflow the earth;--with a multitude of questions like not unlike them in their general character. These questions were all answered as well as they could be.

A third meeting was held about a fortnight still later, but we are not informed of the results, except that they asked, as before, many singular questions.

Perhaps I ought to say, here, that Waban, at whose house the meetings were held, was afterwards converted, and did much to awaken and enlighten his fellow-Indians. During the evening after the third meeting, Waban instructed some youths in Christianity, and during the whole night, whenever he awoke, he would be heard praying and exhorting.

On the Saturday night after the third meeting, an Indian by the name of Wampas, was sent as a messenger from Nonantum, to Mr. Eliot's house in Roxbury. He took with him,--so says Mr. Sparks, in his Life of Eliot,--his own son and three other children. They were of the ages of four, five,, eight and nine years. He begged to be allowed to leave them with the English, that they might be brought up to know God; for he said, if they remained at home, they would grow up in rudeness and wickedness. Mr. Eliot promised to do all he could, but it is not known, in particular, what became of them.

Along with Wampas came, however, two adult Indians, healthy and strong men, who wished to be employed as servants in English families, that they, too, might learn about God. They were successful in finding places, but how good they proved as servants is not stated.

A fourth meeting was held among the Indians at Nonantum, at which, history says, the Indians offered all of their children to the English, to be educated by them, and only lamented that they were not able to pay the expense. Some of the adults, too, who were called powaws, agreed to abandon their sorceries, and seek Christian instruction.

------+-------
C H A P T E R F O U R.
------+-------

Establishment at Nonantum -- At Neponset -- Trouble with the Indian chief, Cutshamakin -- Curious anecdotes, illustrating Indian character.

MR. ELIOT'S care for the Indians was not confined to religious teaching. He aimed to soften and gradually to break up their savage mode of life, by bringing them together under some better and more social arrangement.

The Indians at Nonantum now began to work very industriously, being encouraged and aided by Mr. Eliot, who promised to furnish them with spades, shovels, mattocks, iron crows, &c., and to give them sixpence a rod for their work on the ditches and walls.
So zealous were they in their new enterprise that he says they called for tools faster than they could supply them. The wigwams they built were in a better style than formerly. Before this time they had used mats; but now they used the bark of trees in constructing their humble dwellings, and in them had distinct rooms.

By Mr. Eliot's direction, they now fenced in their grounds with ditches and stone walls, some vestiges of which were remembered by persons in the latter part of the last century. Their women partook of the spirit of improvement, and became skillful spinners, their good teachers himself taking pains to procure wheels for them.

They began also to experience the stimulating advantages of traffic, and found something to carry to market in neighboring towns. In the winter, they sold brooms, staves, eel-pots, baskets, and turkeys; in the summer whortleberries, grapes and fish; in the spring and autumn, strawberries, cranberries and venison. In the season for hay and harvest, they sometimes worked on wages for their English neighbors, but were not found to be hardy and persevering laborers.

The impulse of improvement, however imperfect, was strongly felt. The poorest wigwams among them were equal to those of princes or sachems in other places. Their infant settlement, rude and poor as it must necessarily have been, already began to show that man, amidst the regulations of a community, in some degree orderly, working with his own hands for himself and his family, is a being far superior to man roaming through the forest, in reckless vagrancy, with no excitement to industry in any form, and dividing his time between hunting and sleep.

The interest which Mr. Eliot took in founding and promoting this little establishment, is scarcely less honorable to his memory than his labors of piety. When we thus see one, whose talents and attainments fitted him to stand with the highest in the land, busying himself in the minute details of such an enterprise, procuring tools for the men, and spinning-wheels for the women, advising and assisting them, with the kindness of paternal wisdom, in their new attempt at social order, we cannot but feel, that in the humblest work of benevolence which man performs for his fellow-man, there are the elements of true moral greatness. We are reminded of the excellent Oberlin, the pastor of Waldbach, whose life is one of the most delightful narratives in the history of the lowly but important labors of devoted piety.

The native converts, here and elsewhere, were called praying Indians. This was the first establishment or society of them which was form in New England.

There was also another place of instruction established about this time, at Neponset, within the present limits of Dorchester. Here Mr. Eliot preached in the wigwam of a sachem, whose name was Cutshamakin. It is said that we was the first sachem to whom Mr. Eliot ever preached.

This Cutshamakin professed to be a Christian, and not only allowed Mr. Eliot to preach in his wigwam, but to catechize and even admonish his family.

One day, when Mr. Eliot was catechizing his family, one of the sachem's sons, a lad of about fifteen, was observed to omit the word "mother," in the fifth commandment; and he was very reluctant to say "Honor thy father." As he was known to be not only intemperate, but disobedient to his parents, Mr. Eliot and another minister who was present, reproved him. He confessed his guilt, but laid the blame, in part, to his father, who, he said, treated him angrily, and also compelled him to drink "sack."

Aware that the young man's accusations were not groundless, Mr. Eliot and Mr. Wilson, at the next season of catechizing, exhorted Cutshamakin to prepare the way for his son's reformation by confessing, first, his own faults. The sachem was very much affected, and at once acknowledged and lamented his offences. This example had an excellent effect. The young man, beholding the bitterness of his father's grief, was melted into tears, and, taking him by the hand, he entreated his forgiveness. Now it was that the parents, in their turn were affected, and wept; and the board on which the naturally stern sachem stood, was wet with his tears!

If such are the effects of the gospel and the labors of gospel ministers, on the half civilized and half converted savage, what ought to be its effects, -- what penitence ought it to produce, -- in families at once civilized and christianized? If this Indian boy, stern and proud as his heart was, became humble and penitent, how much more ought the children of Christian families to lament, before both God and their parents, every act, even the smallest, which savors of disobedience!

I have spoken of Cutshamakin as only half converted, and he was so. He could never be taught to govern himself long at a time, and therefore could not be trusted. He would sin and then repent, and then sin again as bad as ever. He even acknowledged to Mr. Eliot, that he was far from being what he ought to be. "My heart," said he, "is but little better than it was, and I am afraid it will be as bad as it was before."

The trouble with Cutshamakin, as I have already hinted, was, that he was never governed; and never, therefore, knew how to govern himself. Alas, for those boys and girls who have come to the age of twelve or fifteen years, and yet have never been taught to govern themselves! If any such should cast their eyes over these pages, let me admonish them to set themselves about the work of self-government immediately. The work must be done or they can never be happy; and the longer they defer it, the more difficult it will be. The fact that your parents have not taught you to command your passions and feelings, and govern yourselves, is not excuse at all for neglecting to do so. On the contrary, it only increases the necessity of your attending to the subject, and in good earnest.

But whether the fault be that of your parents, or partly theirs and partly your own, let me entreat your to being at once the work of reform. Keep down your pride, your envy, your jealousy, your anger, your revenge. Keep not only your hands from wrong things, but set a guard over your lips and your tongue. And last of all, and above all, guard well your thoughts. It is out of the abundance of the heart, that is the thoughts of the heart, that the mouth speaketh.

I will relate a short anecdote, illustrative of the difficulties Mr. Eliot had with that chief Cutshamakin.

When Mr. Eliot was afterwards about establishing the Indian town of Natick, Cutshamakin opposed him, and with so much violence of speech, that the other Indians friendly to Mr. Eliot were frightened, and gradually left him.

Seeing himself obliged to defend his cause alone, he boldly told Cutshamakin he was about God's work; that he feared not him or any of the other sachems; and that let them do what they might, he should go on with his undertaking. This determination, joined to a steadfast look, made the haughty sachem yield.

How much will firmness do, in this world! The most fierce animals, it is often said, cannot stand before the firm and steady eye of man. This is even told of the tiger. Be that as it may, it will go very far. Cutshamakin at length honestly told Mr. Eliot that the reason why he was so unwilling to have him build settlements and towns was, that it diminished his yearly revenue. The praying Indians, he said, did not pay him so much tribute as they used to do before they became such. He admitted that Mr. Eliot's teaching was good; yet he said it was of little service, for the Indians would not do was they were taught; but that above all they would not pay the tribute.

On inquiry, however, Mr. Eliot found that Cutshamakin had not told him the truth. For examining the chiefs round about, and setting down in writing the various items of tribute they paid, he found they amounted to a much larger sum than he had expected. He saw clearly that the sachem's complaints were groundless. But it was quite another thing to make Cutshamakin think so. He did not hesitate, however, to attempt it. The method he took was curious. It was as follows:

One day he went, with another gentleman, to preach at the house of Cutshamakin. They found him very sour and sullen, but took no notice of it, and proceeded to open the meeting as usual. After prayer, Mr. Eliot explained the account of the temptation of Christ, in the fourth chapter of Matthew. When he came to the eighth and ninth verses, he applied what is there said to the case of Cutshamakin, telling him that he was under the influence of a bad spirit, which had made him ambitious, or, in other words, that Satan was trying to tempt him to leave off praying to God, for the sake of becoming a more powerful chief. He treated him with so much plainness, made such powerful appeals to him, and begged him so strongly to resist the endeavors of Satan to draw him away from God, that the old sachem was at last considerably affected, and made promises of amendment, and for some time behaved much better. But as I have already told you, he never became a very good man, after all. He went through life doing wrong in moments of temptation and passion, repenting of it, and then going again and doing precisely the same thing.

The anecdote is not only curious, as showing out much of the Indian character, but also as exhibiting in a most striking manner the great wisdom of Mr. Eliot; and his ingenuity in securing and maintaining his influence over the Indians. Few men, in all probability, ever understood the true Indian character better than he.

I should like, in this place, to relate an anecdote. At one of the meetings among the Indians, after the service was over, they were allowed to ask questions. Among other questions was the following:

"What do you (the English) get by praying to God, and believing in Jesus Christ? You are poor, as well as we; your clothes and your corn are no better than ours; and, in the meantime, we take more pleasure than you do. If we could see you gain any thing by being Christians, we would be so too."

Mr. Eliot, in reply, told them there were two sorts of blessings which God gave to people, little ones and great ones. The little blessings, he said, -- at the same time holding up his little finger, -- were riches, good clothes, houses, pleasant food, and so on; the great ones, -- which he compared with the little ones by holding up his thumb,-- were wisdom and the knowledge of God and Christ, of truth and eternal life. Now, continued he, whether God gives you many of these little blessings or not, he is very ready to give you the great ones, if you only desire them most heartily, and ask him for them. But he did not forget to tell them, at the same time, that, in proportion as they prayed to God, and received from him the great blessings before-mentioned, just in the same proportion would they have an increase of the small blessings, too; such as corn, clothes, and houses.

There was an Indian sachem at Concord, who became a convert under Mr. Eliot's preaching, who was a truly noble man. He was convinced the religion Mr. Eliot taught was good for them, and that those who opposed it were bad at heart. So he called together, one day, his principal men, and made quite a long speech to them in favor of Mr. Eliot and the English. In the conclusion of his speech, he made the following very just observations:

"What have you gained, while you have been living so long in the Indian fashion, under the power of the higher sachems? They only sought to get what they could from you, and exacted, at their pleasure, your kettles, your skins, and wampum. But the English, you see, do no such things; they seek only your welfare; and, instead of taking from you, they give to you."

This speech was of great service. The Indians at Concord were convinced that it was true. They consented to follow his advice, and learn to live like the English. About this time, a code of rules was drawn up, to regulate the behavior of the Indians, forbidding lying, stealing, drunkenness, idleness, quarreling and Sabbath-breaking; and encouraging neatness, order, and a respectful treatment of each other. Some of them observed these rules with great exactness and faithfulness; and it is even said, that the most of them set up prayer in their families. Mr. Eliot used to visit the Concord Indians as often as he could.

In regard to Sabbath-keeping, however, it was very hard work to persuade those rude sons of the forest of the propriety of this duty. Nor is it so much to be wondered at, after all; since we find hundreds and thousands, now-a-days, who seem to say, Who has required this strict Sabbath-keeping at our hands, and what profit will it be to us, to pray and observe the Sabbath?

Many of them, however, did observe the day with considerable strictness; especially the really converted, or "praying" ones. They held meeting among themselves, even when they had no English preacher with them. On these occasions, some of their own people became their teachers, and used to instruct them and pray with them. There are a number of curious anecdotes related to the Life of Eliot, with go to show how some of them regarded this subject.

One Sabbath, as Nabanton, a praying Indian, was teaching the people in what manner they ought to observe holy time, he took occasion to rebuke an Indian woman for fetching water on the Sabbath. It was the wife of Cutshamakin, of whom he thus complained.
When the meeting was over, she told Nabanton he had done more harm by talking about such a small matter in a public assembly, than she had by actually doing the crime. This lead to quite a long dispute; and at last they concluded to leave the question to Mr. Eliot. It do not know how Mr. Eliot settled the matter; but the anecdote shows how scrupulous some of the Indians were on this subject.

One another occasion, two Indians came one Sabbath, towards evening, to the house of Waban, at Nonantum, and told him that they had chased a raccoon into a hollow tree, about a mile from his house, and wanted help to cut down the tree and catch the raccoon. So Waban sent two men with them to help them catch the raccoon. They rest of the praying Indians were greatly surprised as this conduct, in so good a man as Waban professed to be, and this matter too, was, at the next meeting, brought before Mr. Eliot.

I will relate another of these anecdotes: One Sabbath, the meeting of the Indians having been held rather late, one of them on returning to his wigwam, found his fire nearly gone out. "He took his hatchet, as he sat by the fire, and split a piece of dry wood, which was kept for kindling, and so lighted up his fire." This was thought by some of the rest of the Indians to be very wrong; and at the next meeting it was brought up and discussed; but we are told nothing in regard to their decision.

It was not far from this period, that an attempt was made by the Concord Indians to form a town. After some time they succeeded, and built a town, which they called Nashoba. The settlement lay in what now constitutes the towns of Acton and Littleton. They had a place of worship, and an Indian teacher; supposed to have been trained and prepared for the work by Mr. Eliot.

I have two more anecdotes to relate, showing Mr. Eliot's methods of managing the Indians, and illustrating Indian character, with which I shall conclude this long chapter. Savages, as you know, regard females as an inferior sort of beings compared with males, and sometimes, in all countries, actually beat them. So it was, originally, with the Indians of North America, and with those about Boston, among the rest.

A chief, of the name of Wampas, on a certain occasion, got into a passion and beat his wife cruelly. He was made to stand up, in a very large meeting, at which even the governor of the colony was present, and answer for his crime. He confessed the wrong, in a most humble manner, and when Mr. Eliot set before him, in its true light, the nature and consequences of such conduct, he turned his face to the wall, and wept like a child. The Indians were all ready to forgive him, and only required that he should pay the small fine to which such transgressors were at the time exposed.

The other anecdote to which I referred, is the following:

In the year 1647, an Indian child died at Nonantum, of consumption, upon which its friend went to the English to learn their modes of burial. Having obtained the information they desired, they went home and proceeded to discharge the last sad offices for the child in the following manner.

"Having procured," says Mr. Sparks, "a few boards and nails, they made a neat coffin, and about forty of them, in a solemn manner, accompanied the body of the little one to its resting place in the dust. They then withdrew, a short distance, to the shade of a large tree, and requested one of their number to pray with them. Their devotional exercise, which lasted nearly half an hour, was extremely fervent, and accompanied with many tears. An Englishman, who observed these proceedings at a distance, and reported them, said, that 'the woods rang again with their sighs and prayers.'"

------+-------
C H A P T E R F I V E.
------+-------

Mr. Eliot's labor with the Indians abroad -- at Pawtucket -- Nashaway -- Quaboag -- Yarmouth.

THUS far, Mr. Eliot's labor among the Indians had been confined to the neighborhood of Roxbury and Boston. He had never thought of going among the natives very far from home. But at length, having gained a familiar acquaintance with their character and habits, he began to think of extending his field of labor, and doing good on a broader scale.

There lived at this time, at a place called by the Indians Pawtucket, a little northward of where Lowell now stands, an aged Indian chief, who professed to be very friendly to the English. His name was Passaconaway. Hw was thought, by some to be 120 years old. Be this as it may, his age was, at least, very great. On account of his great age, services, wisdom, cunning, &c., he was looked up to by his superstitious countrymen as a great sorcerer or powaw; and it was believed that he had the power of making green leaves grow in winter, of setting water on fire, &c.

It was about this time, that is, in 1647, that Mr. Eliot, in company with a few English friends and praying Indians, went as far as Pawtucket to see, as it is supposed, the aged Passaconaway. For some reason or other now unknown, the old chief would not see them, but, with his sons, fled away from them. Some of his men, however, remained to hear what they had to say, and the visit was on the whole quite gratifying.

In the spring of the next year, Mr. Eliot visited Pawtucket again. On this occasion, Passaconaway ventured to remain. He pretended to have been in fear for his life, on Mr. Eliot's first approach; but it is difficult to believe that this was the real cause. However this may be, he now appeared to listen to the preaching of the gospel with great pleasure, and the following year he invited Mr. Eliot to come and live among his people and be their teacher. He did not content himself with merely sending for Mr. Eliot, but gave him a personal invitation and strongly urged him. His people, he said, were not much benefited by visits of only once a year, but required constant and patient instruction. The following is one part of the ingenious argument used by this chief:

"You do just as if one should come and throw a fine thing among us, and we should catch at it earnestly because it appears so beautiful, but cannot look at it to see what is in it. There may be something or nothing; a stock, a stone, or a precious treasure; -- but if it be opened and we find something valuable therein, then we think much of it.

"So you tell us about religion; and we like it very well at first sight, but we know not what is within; it may be excellent, or it may be nothing, we cannot tell; but if you will stay with us and open it to us and show us all within, we shall believe it to be as good as you say it is."

Mr. Eliot's heart inclined him strongly to accept of old Passaconaway's proposal; but there were many difficulties in the way; and the conclusion was, that it must be deferred. He hoped, however, to be able to do something for him at a future period.

About this time, Mr. Eliot also visited Nashaway, now Lancaster. Of his success among the Indians there, we know very little. We only know that he preached there, and that the principle chief was much pleased with him.

Among the rest, an old sachem living in Quaboag, now Brookfield, had heard of the fame of Mr. Eliot, and wished to have him some and see him and even reside with him. Mr. Eliot consented to go; but as there had been some late disturbances among the Indians in that region, and several had been murdered, his Roxbury friends were afraid to have him undertake the journey.

When the chief at Nashaway heard of these fears, he raised twenty men, and, putting himself at their head, accompanied him to Quaboag. It was about 60 miles to Roxbury, and was quite a journey for those early days through the woods. The weather, too, happened to be bad just at that time, and they were for two days drenched in water.

Mr. Eliot afterwards observed that he was never dry during the journey, either night or day. At night, he would pull off his boots, wring the water from his stockings and put them on again. The rivers were greatly swelled by the rains, and as they had, in those days, no bridges, and were obliged to pass them on horseback, this made their condition much worse. He returned, however, in safety; and without injury that we know of, to his health.

Not long after this, Mr. Eliot was also at Yarmouth or Cape Cod. Here, among other things which he did, he visited the Indians, and undertook to preach to them. But their dialect differed so greatly from that of the Indians about Boston and westward of it, that he found great difficulty in making himself understood.

Another difficulty, too, arose as he proceeded. There was a very fierce and furious Indian sachem living in that neighborhood, whom the English people called Jehu. He would pretend friendship for Mr. Eliot, but when the appointed time arrived for a meeting, he would send his people away after fish or something else, in order to have them, if he could, out of the way. Sometimes, indeed, he would permit them to attend; and it is even said that he once attended a meeting himself; but he pretended not to understand any thing that was said. The truth is, he was obstinate, and did not wish to hear; besides, he had, most evidently, a fondness for being singular.

Some of the other sachems were more docile and heard him with great pleasure; and encouraged their people to do so. On the whole, his visit proved, in the end, a pleasant one; but I do not learn whether it was attended with much success.

------+-------
C H A P T E R S I X.
------+-------

Civilization at Nonantum -- Schools among the Indians -- Mr. Eliot's encouragement and aid from Europe -- How he applied it -- Opposition to his efforts -- Anecdotes -- Trouble with the powaws and sachems -- Mr. Eliot's bravery.

AMONG the objects of Mr. Eliot's benevolent efforts, he was most interested with his little establishment at Nonantum. He had made quite an impression on their native habits already. Some of them were so far advanced in civilization, that they began to fence their corn-fields as the English did. They had also finished several hundred rods of ditching, and were beginning to think of planting orchards and cultivating gardens, and Mr. Eliot had promised them several hundred trees.

Mr. Eliot was also doing a great deal in the way of establishing schools among them. He even paid considerable sums of money to various individuals for teaching their children. He paid twenty dollars, in particular, to a teacher in Dorchester, and twenty more to another in Cambridge. A considerable sum of money was also sent him from England, to be applied to the same purpose, although he never knew the name of the donor. He also spent a great deal of time in catechizing the Indian children, -- of which method of instruction he was very fond.

He had also made considerable efforts to stir up in his brethren in the ministry the same feeling which pervaded his own bosom. He besought them with this view, to learn the Indian language. Some of them had done much already. Among those who sympathized most with him was Mr. Shepard, the minister at Cambridge. But the latter did not live to aid him long. He died in 1649. it turned out, however, that besides encouraging him by their kind and encouraging words, most of the ministers aided him very little after all.

Almost every minister has work enough to do in his own parish; and it is very seldom indeed, that one can be found who will undertake to do more. They have always one encouragement to extend their labors, which is that the more they do, the more, if they are prudent and do not overwork or commit other improprieties, they can do. This is a curious trait in human nature; but should not be overlooked. "As thy day is, so shall thy strength be," the Bible somewhere says, and it is really often so. The more a person does, at any healthy business, the more, as a general rule he can do. This is especially true of the out-of-doors labors of ministers.

Mr. Eliot was better sustained by the efforts of the good Indians, than by his own countrymen. Perhaps this was, on the whole, as it should be. What we want ministers for, not only among the Indians, but elsewhere, is, to a very considerable extent, to set others to work. Cutshamakin, the chief of whom I spoke, in a former chapter, had a few subjects, at the place called, at the present time, Martha's Vineyard. There, by the advice and especially the example of their sachem, they had adopted the religion of the English, and already began to be known as belonging to the praying Indians.

One circumstance occurred, just now, which was happily calculated to cheer and gladden his heart. The news of his labors among the Indians had reached Great Britain, and excited much inquiry. He had, moreover, written a small book, which had been read there with much interest, and which had awakened considerable attention. It was call "The Day-Breaking, if not the Sun-Rising of the Gospel." Mr. Shepard of Cambridge had written another, which was called "Clear Sunshine of the Gospel." Both of these books embraced accounts of the experiments going on among the natives about Boston, and had no small influence in rousing the sympathies of many British Christians in their behalf.

The result was an appeal, by some of the Clergymen about London, to Parliament; and an order was passed in that body in July, 1649, for the advancement of civilization and Christianity among the Indians of New England. Indeed a society was soon after formed for this purpose, and a general contribution was directed to be made throughout England and Wales. But though many liked the plan, many greatly disliked it, and the contribution went on slowly. Considerable sums, however, were at length raised. This money was applied to pay the salaries of preachers among the Indians, in supporting schools, in buying tools, instruments of labor, wool, &c., for them, in attempting to erect an Indian college, and in printing Eliot's translation of the Bible into the Indian tongue. Mr. Eliot, himself, only received for his own use, a yearly sum of about fifty pounds sterling.

Mr. Eliot, as I have already intimated had it in view to establish an Indian college. But there were so many difficulties in the way of carrying out his plan, that it was not until the year 1665, that he brought it into operation. Nor even then did it meet with success. I will say something more about this hereafter. How often it happens that the conduct of the best men is misrepresented! Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was on one occasion, at least, thought to be crazy, or "mad," as the people called it. Even the Saviour of mankind, mild as he was, in his going about to do good, was thought to be mad or crazy, and to be possessed with the devil! What wonder, then, if people had wrong ideas about Mr. Eliot?

Some personas who went back from American to England, told the people that Mr. Eliot was doing the Indians no good by his instructions, but rather much hard. They said that the Indians were naturally bad and reckless; that they would loiter about the English settlements, watching an opportunity to steal or do mischief; and some said, that Mr. Eliot's instructions only enabled them to be the more vicious.

I suppose those persons felt then just as many people do now-a-days. The Indians, they say, are an entirely different race of men from ourselves (and the same thing is said of the Africans), and there is no use in trying to make them live like ourselves. The Creator, probably, intended that they should not be like ourselves; he did not, probably, intend that they should ever be civilized.

Yet these people forget that our ancestors, -- yes, ours, -- were once savages, roaming over the Island of Great Britain, and sacrificing their own children to appease the supposed anger of their imaginary deities. Suppose people had said of these, our ancestors, as some people do of the savages, now, that it was no use to attempt to civilize them, where should we have been now?

The truth is, that all savages may be civilized. With some, it takes more time, with others, less. Some of our American Indians, in various parts of the United States are already nearly as far advanced in civilization as the whites; and this, too, by the efforts of only 200 years. Had every white man, from the time of Eliot to the present day, felt and acted on the principles he did, there might have been, at this time, many prosperous and comparatively happy tribes of Indians living within our borders.

It is true, that some individuals among them are lazy and worthless, whether civilized or uncivilized, especially of the first generation. But after a few generations of Indian children have been brought up in the true English style, and taught the principles and practice of Christianity, the proportion of idle and indolent among them would rapidly diminish.

As to the propensity in the Indians to steal, I believe this is often taught them by bad people among ourselves. These first cheat the Indians, which greatly vexes them; and they soon seek an opportunity to be revenged in some way or other. If there were bad people among the Indians to whom Mr. Eliot preached, it is probable they were made bad, not by the labors of Mr. Eliot, but by the dishonesty of some of our own people in their trading with them.

However, Mr. Eliot was not to be moved by false stories circulated about him. He knew was he was doing; and trusted that he who is the God of the red man as well as of the white man, would approve and bless his exertions.

About the year 1650, a man by the name of Gorta, whose religious views were rather singular, traveled about and preached in New England, and made considerable disturbance by his doctrines. They were much perplexed, and came to Mr. Eliot to ask an explanation. How is it, they said, that Mr. Gorta, who has the same Bible with you, teaches such different things?

On inquiry what it was that Mr. Gorta taught differently from him; Why, said they, you teach us there is a heaven and a hell; but according to Mr. G's notions it is not so. He says, there is no heaven except in the hearts of the good, and no hell except in the hearts of the wicked. We are not fully told, in history, how Mr. Eliot contrived to clear up the difficulties they felt in their minds. Probably he referred them to the Bible, which teaches that though heaven must begin in the hearts of men before they die or they can never enter it, and in like manner, though hell commences in bad men here in this world, yet there is also both a heaven and a hell beyond the grave.
Mr. Eliot was a man of prayer. Of this, the following will serve as an illustration:

I have already told you that he intended to build a town for they praying Indians. But as he was waiting for tools, &c, from England, he advised the Indians to delay their work a little till the tools should arrive; which he hoped would be by the next ship. But ship after ship kept arriving, and no tools being received, nor any information respecting them, the Indians grew impatient. This greatly grieved Mr. Eliot. He began to think the matter over; and at last concluded that he had fallen into the habit of depending more on human means than he ought, and too little on God. So he resolved more than before to resort to prayer. At last, with the consent of his people, he held a church fast, in Roxbury. Just at that time, and before they left the meeting, news came that a ship had arrived with letters from England, and promises of immediate aid. Mr. Eliot was confirmed, by this event, in his determination to pray more than formerly; for he verily believed, and probably with justice, that God had so ordered the matter, that the welcome intelligence he had just received should be the effect of fasting and prayer. Some call such a concurrence of circumstances a mere accident, but I do not so regard it.

It should not be forgotten, that though Mr. Eliot was greatly in favor with the Indians, he did not wholly escape their opposition. It may be doubted whether there ever was a good man, -- one I mean, who is very active, -- who passed through the world without awakening the enmity of somebody. I know it is sometimes said in praise of a man, after he dies, that he was not know ever to have an enemy. But our Saviour and his apostles had enemies; and so, it seems to me, all modern true apostles to.

I have said that Mr. Eliot met with trouble from some of the Indians. The opposition arose chiefly from their powaws, or sorcerers, whom I have before mentioned; but whom I believe I have not sufficiently described.

The powaws, it was supposed, had communications with the world of spirits; and it was thought that they sometimes procured aid from thence. By some, it was supposed they had the ability to bewitch their enemies, or even to put them to death by an invisible or unseen influence. Their howlings, and dances, and charms, and incantations would overawe those whom no fear of bodily pain would move in the least. Even the Christian converts from among the Indians still stood in fear of these powaws.

Mr. Eliot labored much, however, to rid them of these idle and superstitious fears. Such a course greatly offended the powaws; and these, by their influence with the sachems, contrived to set some of them also against Mr. Eliot. In this situation of things, they praying Indians became hated, both by the sachems and powaws, and an persecution arose. Some of the praying Indians were banished, and others, it is said, were even put to death.

The life of the apostle Eliot was, in some instances, in great danger from their violence. They would drive him away, and with loud threats tell him not to come among them again, if he valued his life. It is supposed, that had it not been for fear of the English, they would have actually put him to death. Nor would the new converts, the praying Indians, have fared much better.

As for Mr. Eliot, he had too much of the spirit of a martyr to be frightened greatly by the threats of the powaws and sachems. I am engaged, he would say to them, in the work of God, and God is with me. I fear not all the sachems in the country. I shall go on in my work, and do you touch me if you dare.

This showed him to be a man of true Christian bravery. When there was no occasion for any other conduct, he was full of mildness, gentleness and love; and could enter the wigwams of the Indians, and interest himself in the wants and concerns of the smallest children, and talk with and catechize them; but when it became necessary, he could also face the boldest and most savage of the chiefs in a manner which would at once put them to silence and fill them with dismay.

------+-------
C H A P T E R S E V E N.
------+-------

Indian town at Natick -- The Foot Bridge -- Shape of the town -- Form of the government -- Trouble with Cutshamakin -- Keeping a Fast -- An Indian Sermon -- The Indian Schoolmaster -- Indian Missionaries -- New town of Punkapog.

INSTEAD of having the new town for the praying Indians as near Boston as Nonantum, it was thought best to go farther to the south-west. In 1651, therefore, the Indians at Nonantum removed to a pleasant spot on the banks of Charles river, about seventeen miles from Boston. Here they built their town and called it Natick, which means 'a place of hills.'

The town was built on both sides of the river. The stream was not large here, in the summer, and could easily be waded; but on account of the floods in the spring, which sometimes raised it very high, it was found necessary to build a bridge across it. It was, however, a mere foot bridge; but it was eighty feet long, and nine high; and, for an Indian work, quite respectable in its appearance.

When the bridge was completed, Mr. Eliot told the laborers, that as they had worked hard, in the water, if any of them desired wages, he would pay them; but as the bridge was for their own use, if they would consider it so, and make no charges for their labor, he should be glad. They at once refused to accept any thing, and even thanked him for the kind and valuable assistance he had rendered them. Before they separated, at the finishing of the bridge, Mr. Eliot also called them together, and held a sort of meeting, which consisted of prayer and religious instruction.

The town was laid out into three streets, two on one side of the river, and one on the other. "Lots of land were measured and divided, apple trees were planted, and the business of the sowing season was begun. A house-lot was assigned to each family; and it is said, that some of the cellars of these dwellings may be seen in the present day.

"They built a circular fort, palisaded with trees, and a large house in the English style, the lower part of which was to be used for public worship, on the Sabbath, and for a school-room on other days; while the upper apartment was used as a wardrobe, and as a depository for valuable commodities. A part of this room was divided from the rest, by a partition, for Mr. Eliot's peculiar use, in which he had a bed. This house, fifty feet long, twenty feet wide, and twelve feet high between the joists, was built entirely by the Indians, except the assistance they had from an English carpenter, for a day or two, who gave them directions about raising the frame and some other particulars." [Alcott attributes this quote to Sparks 'Life of Eliot.']

there were also erected a kind of canopies, one for Mr. Eliot and his attendants, and the other for the Indians themselves. They were made, it is said, of mats fixed upon poles, and are supposed to have been for the hearers of discourses, in pleasant weather. Several small houses, in the English style, were also erected; but many of the inhabitants still preferred wigwams.

The next thing was to establish for the Indians a form of government. They would, indeed, be under the general direction of the governor of the province of Massachusetts, but they would need some particular plan for that town. The matter was referred to the consideration of Mr. Eliot as a sort of father.

He advised the Indians to adopt the plan which Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, proposed for the Israelites, when on their march through the wilderness. This was to divide their community into hundreds, fifties and tens; and to appoint rulers or chiefs over hundreds, over fifties, and over tens. The rulers of tens, Mr. Eliot proposed, after the English fashion, to call tithing-men.

This plan, it seems, was adopted by the Indians, for I find from history, that on the sixth of August, 1651, a great meeting of praying Indians was held in the new building, at which Mr. Eliot, after opening it with prayer, read and explained to them the eighteenth chapter of Exodus, as containing the model of their government; immediately after which they proceeded to elect officers, according to Mr. Eliot's plan. Mr. Eliot was much elated by the prospects before him, and much gratified with the past.

Some of the Indians suggested the plan of having a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, on the plan of the English. Mr. Eliot was pleased with the proposal. He though its necessity was greatly increased by an accident and loss which had occurred about this time. A ship, which had been sent on from England with supplies for the new Indian settlement, had just been wrecked at Cohasset, and though most of the property was saved, it was much damaged.

A little before this period, Mr. Eliot had trouble again with the sachem Cutshamakin. He had been to the Narraganset country to assist in settling a quarrel among his brother sachems. On their return, he and his companions had purchased some "strong water," as they called it, and become intoxicated; and though Cutshamakin himself was not so much intoxicated as some of the rest, yet, as a religious man, his conduct merited and received a severe rebuke from Mr. Eliot.

His punishment consisted in being forbidden to take any part as a teacher, in the fast of which I have just spoken. He was apparently greatly humbled by this privation; for no sooner had the hour arrived for opening the meeting, than he came forward of his own accord, and to the surprise of them all, made a most humble confession of his fault, and concluded with a short prayer. Thus ended, for that time, the trouble with this fickle-minded chief. How long he remembered his repentance and promises of amendment of life, we are not informed.

During the intermission of this meeting, at noon, the question came up, so history says, whether it was lawful and proper on a day of public fasting and prayer "to take a pipe of tobacco." It would be curious to know to what conclusions they came on this subject. For Mr. Eliot, as I ought to have before told you, had become so thorough-going of a temperance man, even in those early days, that he mortally hated tobacco, while the Indians were equally fond of it. But we can only guess at results. The probability is, that so strong was the attachment of the Indians to this herb, that even the fold and fearless Eliot did not dare to attack it with violence, and that they came to the conclusion, that is was lawful to use it.

The new Indian town, Indian meeting, and Indian government soon began to excite much attention from abroad. The great men in Boston, especially, were very curious to visit it. So about a fortnight after the fast I have mention, the governor of the colony,--Gov. Endicott,--and many others, attended a meeting at Natick. On this day, one of the Indians took the lead in the meeting. Though the governor could not understand him, he was much pleased with his solemn manner, and with the solemn and devout attention of the people; and begged Mr. Eliot to write down, in English, the substance of his remarks.

As a specimen of what a native Indian could do, without much instruction from the Bible, the sermon was quite curious. The following will give you something of an idea of it.

The text consisted of two parables: "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof, goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman seeking goodly pearls; who, when he has found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it." [Matthew 13:44-46.]

These parables the Indian teacher explained thus: The hidden treasure, he said, was the knowledge of Jesus Christ; including repentance, and the pardon of sin, with the means of grace, such as baptism, union with God's people, and prayer and praise, public and private. The field in which the treasure was found, was the Christian church. The things they must part with, in order to gain it, were their old practices and vices -- everything which was in the way of their receiving, with the right spirit, the blessed gospel of Jesus Christ.

The merchantman spoken of, he said, was the person who was truly anxious to know about God and the truth; such were all good, praying Indians. His riches meant his former evil habits and conduct. These were sold; that is, these sins must be cast away, for the sake of the more valuable pearl.

This must have been a singular scene. The hear a person, who but a few years before was himself a savage, stand up and explain with so much good sense the hold Scriptures, in a place where, till but just now, no other voices had been heard than those of savage beasts and savage men; what heart could have remained unmoved or unmelted?

Gov. Endicott and those who were with him were indeed much affected. They wrote to their friends in England, describing, with great delight, the scenes they had witnessed. They described the town of Natick also, with its arched bridge.

They also described, on one occasion, in writing to their English friends, a visit to Natick, at which Mr. Eliot prayed with the Indians, and preached about an hour to them about coming to Christ and bearing his yoke; which exercises were followed by an opportunity for the Indians to ask questions. After numerous questions had been asked and answered, the Indian schoolmaster, whose name was Monequassun, read, in the old-fashioned New England manner, line by line, a psalm which Mr. Eliot had translated for them into the Indian tongue, while the Indian men and women sun it; and many of them sung very well indeed.

These Indians, at this period, partly for want of a bell to their meeting house, and partly perhaps to imitate their English neighbors, who at that time were, in some places, accustomed to the same thing, were in the habit of collecting their people together on the Sabbath, fast-days and lecture days by means of drums. These drums were of their own invention and construction, and were some of them quite ingenious.

Monequassun, the Indian schoolmaster, could read, spell and write very correctly; and his school for some time appeared quite flourishing. Mr. Eliot's object was to make it a kind of teacher's seminary, "from which young natives, well taught and well disciplined, should go forth as missionaries to distant places." He believed the best way to improve the Indians, so as to have their improvement valuable and permanent, was to teach them to teach themselves.

He was right in this, without doubt. The modern American missionaries, in foreign countries, are acting more and more on the same plan. They do not rely wholly on new recruits of missionaries from this country to evangelize the heathen. They hope and expect most from the labors of missionaries whom the can raise up in the schools which they establish among these natives.

Some of these young Indian missionaries sent out by Mr. Eliot, are believed to have done much good; though others of them found the prejudices of their red brethren so strong, that they were obliged to return without success. Sometimes the Indian tribes scattered throughout New England used to send to Natick and beg for instructors.

Mr. Eliot had, at first, intended to bring all the praying Indians about Boston together in one town at Natick. But this plan was at length found so impractical, that it was given up. Another society becoming necessary, a town was established at Stoughton; at that time called Punkapog.

It was about this period that Mr. Eliot began to think of forming his friends, the praying Indians, into a church. Had it been his object to make a show of doing a great work among the Indians, or had he bribed them by giving them coats and shirts, to persuade them to become Christians, he could have collected many large churches long before this period. But Mr. Eliot knew better than to do this; and therefore we find the work deferred until the year 1652.

------+-------
C H A P T E R E I G H T.
------+-------

Attempts to form the church at Natick -- Anecdote of a good child -- Story of the drunken Indians -- Their punishment -- The church finally organized -- Anecdotes of Indian kindness to the sick.

IN OCTOBER, 1652, after much preparation for the event, a day of fasting and prayer was held by the Indians at their new town of Natick. The morning, until nearly noon, was spent in prayer, and in discourses by Mr. Eliot and two of the Indians, who were accustomed to act as teachers.

After this, they proceeded to hear the confessions of the Indians, some of which were curious and interesting. They were, however, in general very long, and as Mr. Eliot wrote them down, it took up a great deal of time. The confession, or experience as it is sometimes called, of the schoolmaster, of whom I have before spoken, was particularly long, and before he had finished, the day was so far spent, that they were obliged to adjourn the meeting.

The business, thus broken off, was not resumed again for a year and a half. One cause was the breaking out of a war between the Dutch about New York and the mother country, in which war it was strongly suspected the Dutch had bribed many of the tribes of Indians to engage, and among the rest some of the praying Indians. Although the last suspicion was groundless, yet since it was abroad, Mr. Eliot thought it best to let the Indians at Natick manage their affairs in their own way, for a time.

It would be curious to see some of Mr. Eliot's notes about the confessions of the Indians at the meeting of which I have spoken. I supposed they are preserved, but they have never come under my eye. One of these Indians, it seems, very honestly confessed, that he first became a praying Indiana, not because he cared any thing about religion, but because he loved the English, and wished them to love him. This, however, brought him into a state, which ended in deep and abiding convictions of sin.

Connected with Mr. Eliot's account of these confessions, there is a story of two Indian children who dies at about three years of age, exhibiting many evidences, as he thought, of love of God. One of them is quite affecting.

The mother of the child had taken great pains to furnish it, during its lifetime, with playthings: and among the rest, with a little basket, a spoon and a tray. The child had become very much attached to these last, but while he was sick, and especially a little while before his death, whenever his mother offered them to him to divert him, he would push them away, saying, "I will leave my basket behind me, for I am going to God; I will leave my spoon and tray behind me, for I am going to God!"

At last, in July, 1654, arrangements were made for finishing the organization of the Indian church at Natick, which had been commenced the year but one before. The meeting was to be held July 13. But a few days before this time, an event took place, which caused much trouble, and had well nigh frustrated the whole plan. The circumstances were as follows:

There were among the praying Indians, as there are among praying white people, some who did not live so closely to their principles as they ought to have done. Three of these had procured some spirit from the English, and had become intoxicated with it.

Now "there was at Natick, at this time", says Mr. Sparks, "a ruler by the name of Toteswamp, a man of gravity and authority. It happened that he had sent his child, a boy of eleven years old, to get some corn and fish, at the place where the three drunken Indians were holding their revel. One of them gave the boy two spoonsful of the rum, which turned his head. Another put a bottle to his mouth, and made him drink till he was entirely intoxicated. When they had done this, they cried out jeeringly, 'Now we shall see whether your father will punish us for drunkenness, since you are drunk as well as we.' The Indians soon began to fight, and the boy, in this situation, lay abroad all night.

When this was reported at Natick, Toteswamp and the rest were deeply grieved. He called the other rulers together to determine what should be done in consequence of this scandal. They sat as a court of judgment on the case, and found that four transgressions had been committed, viz., drunkenness, making the child drunk, reproachful contempt of rulers, and fighting."

These circumstances also greatly distressed Mr. Eliot. As soon as he heard of the shameful affair, he took his horse and rode at once to Natick. When he arrived, he found the court which was to try the case, then in session. They told him their sad story with great sorrow, and begged his advice. Toteswamp was especially affected. He knew his feelings were now to be put to a hard trial. If he loved the cause of Christ best, he would be expected to punish the child among the rest; but if he neglected to punish his child, it might be though that he was an unjust ruler, and that he loved himself and his family more than he loved Christ and the public good.

After much conversation and discussion, the rulers retired to deliberate what they should do. They finally concluded to give sentence as follows: The three Indians, for their crimes, were to sit in the stocks for a long time; thence they were to be taken to the public whipping-post, where they were to receive twenty lashes on the bare back. The punishment was faithfully executed by the constables.

The sentence on the boy was, that he, too, should sit in the stocks a little while, and then be whipped by his father, at the school, before all the children. The punishment was also faithfully inflicted.

Some may wonder why the boy, who was enticed into sin by those who were older, should have suffered so severely. But I suppose the Indians considered him a free agent, and as having the power to refuse poison when it was offered him. And on the whole, I think we should be surprised, that they came so near the truth and justice in the infliction of their punishments, rather than that they did not come exactly to our modern standard.

The proposed meeting was finally held at Roxbury, in the meeting-house, instead of at Natick. It was a very singular meeting; but the story of the proceedings is too long for us; and a part of it would not, I fear, prove very interesting.

But notwithstanding many of the Indians, both at this meeting and at the former were found worthy, as it was though, of admission into the church, the matter was still deferred; for what reasons, we do not now know, in full; nor was it until the year 1660, that the Indian church at Natick was completely formed and organized. It was the first Christian church ever formed among the Indians in North America.

I have an anecdote to relate here, in the close of this chapter, that shows in a striking manner, what a powerful influence Mr. Eliot had over the minds of the Indians, as well as the feelings and sentiments which he wrought into the hearts of some of these sons of the forest.

The small-pox, in the winter of 1650-51, raged among the Indians and made very great havoc among them. The Indians about Boston of course suffered among the rest. But such was the good feeling of some of Mr. Eliot's converts, that they did not hesitate to go around among the sick and take care of them, even at the hazard of their own lives.

Among the Indians was also, at this time, a very old man, that had the palsy. He was so old and so loathsome, that he had become quite a burden to their community; and even his own children had forsaken him. But Mr. Eliot, unwilling to see him suffer, offered a reasonable compensation, in money, to any one who would take care of him. Several of the Christian converts, as soon as they knew his wishes, immediately volunteered their services; and by turns, took care of the poor old man, for a long time. But they refused, in every instance, to receive any compensation for their services.

------+-------
C H A P T E R N I N E.
------+-------

The Indian Bible -- Mr. Eliot's other writings -- Translations -- His Indian Grammar -- His Harmony of the Gospels -- The Indian College -- Lectures at Natick -- The Indian towns -- Number of Praying Indians in Massachusetts and Plymouth Colonies -- The Indian Preacher -- Ruins of Natick -- Sufferings of the praying Indians during Philip's War.

I BELIEVE I have already said something of an Indian Bible, that Mr. Eliot translated from the English. He labored upon it, in translating, for many a weary hour, by night and day. But so many were the difficulties attending it, and so great was the delay, in one way or another, that it was not until the year 1663, that it was finished. Indeed it was three years in the press! [A long time, indeed, when it is considered, that the Messrs. Harper, of New York, sometimes carry a book half as large as the Bible quite through the press in a week.]

What the cost of this work was, we do not know. Mention is somewhere made in the Life of Eliot, of the payment of four hundred and thirty-seven pounds, five shillings, or not far from $1,950 towards it; but how much more than this it cost, cannot now be ascertained. The edition, I believe, was not large; not over fifteen hundred copies.

It has been said, that Mr. Eliot performed the whole of this immense work with only one pen. But this story is doubted by many; and I think with good reason.

A second edition, of two thousand copies of this Bible, was printed about the year 1685. This cost, it appears, about one thousand pounds, or $4,444.

I cannot learn that there is but one of these Bibles, of the first edition, now in existence; and that was saved from destruction in a most remarkable manner. It was in a barber's shop, and the barber was about to use it as wastepaper, when Dr. Harris, of Dorchester, happening to be there, discovered and procured and preserved it.

One of the persons concerned in printing Mr. Eliot's Indian Bible was an Indian, born near Grafton. He was called James the printer. He had been instructed in an Indian charity-school at Cambridge, and could read and write English with much correctness. He afterwards became an apprentice in a printing-office; and assisted, as I have said before, in printing the Indian Bible.

It is not a little curious, that this man -- James the printer -- though so much enlightened, still retained such a sense of the wrongs done to his nation, that when the war broke out in New England, commonly called Philip's war, he ran away from his employer in Boston, and joined the army of Philip, against the English. It appears, however, that he returned again, and was employed in printing the second edition of Eliot's Bible, and various other works. He appears to have been a good and faithful workman.

It is a singular circumstance, that though only about a century and a half has elapsed since the printing of the last portion of the second edition of the Indian Bible, not a person can be found now, either among the whit men or the red men, who can read it. The very language in which it is written does not probably now exist. Copies of it, even of the second edition, are very scarce, and can only be seen in a few public libraries.

Mr. Eliot also wrote other books; and translated several more into the Indian language. I have already mentioned, in another place, one of his books. Another was called "the Christian Commonwealth;" another still, was the "Communion of the Churches."

Among the books which he translated into the Indian language, were Baxter's "Call to the Unconverted," "The Practice of Piety," [It may be interesting to some of our young readers to know the Indian title of the book here mentioned. The language seems very strange to us. It was "Manitoewompae Pamontomoonk sampwshanau Christianoh uttoh who an Pamatog wussikkitteahonat God."] "The Sincere Convert," and the "Sound Believer."

In 1664, he published an Indian Psalter. Some of my readers may hardly know what a Psalter is. It is an old-fashioned name for the Psalms of David, published separately from the Bible. In the Indian language it was a volume of about one hundred and fifty pages.

Next he wrote an Indian Primer. This passed through several editions, and proved a very useful book.

Lastly, he prepared for the Indians a Grammar. It contained about sixty large pages, and appeared about the year 1666. Though Mr. Eliot prepared it with great pains, it does not appear to have been extensively or permanently useful.

In 1678, Mr. Eliot published--not in Indian, but in English--a "Harmony of the Gospels." It was a volume of one hundred and thirty-one pages. It was an interesting book; though it appears to have been what we should call a Life of the Savior, rather than a Harmony of the Gospels.

I have said, elsewhere, something about an Indian college. The project of establishing one had never been given up by Mr. Eliot and his friends; and in 1665, a brick building, large enough to accommodate twenty students, was erected at Cambridge for this purpose, and called the Indian College. But the plan did not succeed; and the very building itself was afterwards changed into a printing-office.

Of the cause of this failure, we are not so well informed. One historian says, it was "by reason of the death and failing of the Indian scholars." But all the particulars of the death or failure of Indian scholars are the following.

A few years before any college building had been erected, two Indians from Martha's Vineyard, by the names of Joel and Caleb, had been sent to the college at Cambridge. Joel died before his education was completed; it is supposed at sea. Caleb went through the usual course of study at college, and took his degree; but died not long afterward of consumption.

But Mr. Eliot was not the man to be disheartened by these discouraging circumstances. Determined to raise up teachers of the Indians among the Indians themselves, we find him, in 1670, giving them a regular course of theological lectures at Natick; and the course appears to have been pretty well attended. In 1672, he published, for their use, as an aid to his instructions, an Indian Logic Primer.

At this point, there are said to have been, within the Commonwealth, seven old and well established towns of praying Indians. I know not where they were situated, except the three I have already mentioned at Natick, Punkapog, and Nashoba. Seven others existed, which had been more recently erected, and were called new towns. They were on the territory of country at present comprised in the towns of Auburn, Oxford, Uxbridge and Dudley, in Massachusetts, and Woodstock, in Connecticut.

It is computed, that the whole number of Christian or praying Indians under the general oversight of Mr. Eliot, was, at this time, about eleven hundred. Besides these, there were reckoned in other parts of Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies and on the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, not less than twenty-five hundred more. In 1673, Mr. Eliot states, that six churches had been gathered among them; one at Natick, one as Hassananamesit, now Grafton, one at Marshpee, two at Martha's Vineyard, and one at Nantucket.

About the year 1680, or a little later, an Indian teacher or preacher was ordained in the church at Natick. His name was Daniel Takawombpait. He remained some time in the pastoral office there, and died in 1716. A humble grave-stone standing at the present time as one of the stones of a wall near the meeting-house in South Natick, marks the spot where he was buried.

Mr. Eliot was also considerably aided by a young minister of the name of Gookin. He preached at Sherburne, near Natick; but consented, once a month, to give lectures to the Indians, through an interpreter. Though already thirty-three years of age, he became so much interested in the work of teaching the Indians, that he proceeded to study and learn their language.

As for Mr. Eliot himself, he continued to preach to his disciples at Natick, as often as once in six months, till he was at least eighty-three years of age. Such an instance of longevity in one whose labors had been so severe through life, is uncommon, but will be partly accounted for when I come to tell you how temperate he was.

One word more in regard to the Indians at Natick. Numerous as they once were, at that place, they have all now disappeared. A single hut or wigwam, inhabited by three or four persons, of mingled Indian and Negro blood, is all that remains of this once comparatively flourishing settlement.

But I have not yet done with my stories about the praying Indians. A sad account remains to be related.

You have heard of king Philip the sachem who so resolutely set himself against our fathers of New England; who would neither receive the Christian religion himself, nor allow his subjects to do so. Perhaps too, you may have heard the anecdote of him, that when Mr. Eliot once offered to preach the gospel to him and his people, "he rejected the offer with disdain, and taking hold of a button on the apostle's coat, told him he cared no more for the gospel than for that button."

When a long, severe Indian war broke out in New England, so well known in history by the name of Philip's war, the poor praying Indians fell into sore difficulties. It was their hard lot to have the good-will of neither party in the war; for Philip, as might have been expected, treated them as the friends of the English, while the English as strongly suspected them of leaning to the side of king Philip.

It was, no doubt, thought by the English, that should they go over to the side of Philip, they would be the most formidable of their enemies. They had been among the English so much, and knew so well their habits and the strength of their forces, that they would be able to do them twice as much mischief as any of the rest of his men.

Probably, too, the suspicions of the English were excited against them, from the fact, that here and there and individual among them did actually desert and join Philip, but the number of such persons was very small. Of one who did this, namely, James the printer, I have already spoken.

But let the suspicions to which I refer have arisen as they may, they were exceedingly strong, and there was a general feeling of indignation against all Indians, good or bad. The praying Indians were, in some instances, treated with great severity; and, in a few instances, reduced to slavery. Mr. Eliot did all he could to set the public mind right in regard to them, but all to no purpose. They were Indians; and the Indians were all bad men! So they seemed to reason on the subject. Nay, Mr. Eliot, for attempting to defend them, became, too, an object of their dislike, and sometimes of their abuse.

How strong are the feelings of human nature on such occasions! It is related, that, as Mr. Eliot and some friends were sailing on the bay, in a boat, a vessel ran against them, and came very near to drowning them all. Upon hearing the story of Mr. Eliot's narrow escape, one man did not hesitate to wish that he had been drowned. But the hatred against his friend was almost equally violent. Mr. Gookin, a magistrate, who had taken part of Mr. Eliot, in favor of the Indians, became at length afraid to walk about the streets.

Finally, such was the excitement against the Indians about Boston, especially the Natick Indians, that the General Court of the Commonwealth resolved to remove the whole of them to Deer Island, a small island in Boston Harbor, six or seven miles from the city. A party of cavalry, with some carts, were therefore sent out to Natick, and the people of the town, amounting in all, men, women and children, to about two hundred, were ordered to go in a place called the "Pines," on Charles river, where vessels would be ready to take them over to the island.

It must have been a very trying time to these poor people. Mr. Eliot, however, was on the spot, and did all he could to console them. He not only prayed with them and exhorted them, but, like the apostle Paul, when he met the Elders of Ephesus at Miletus, he mingled his tears with theirs.

It was on the 30th of October, 1675, about midnight, that this little company of unoffending people embarked on board three vessels, and were conveyed, with such of their effects as five or six carts could bring to the place, to their appointed residence upon Deer Island.

It was not long after this, that the settlement at Punkapog (Stoughton) was broken up in the same manner, and the inhabitants transported to Deer Island. Others, from various places and at various times, were also sent there and to Long Island, near the same place, till at last the whole number of them in the Islands appears to have amounted to above five hundred.

Here Mr. Eliot, and other friends of theirs, several times visited them to preach and to encourage them. They found them very patient in their afflictions; and many of them seems to possess the true spirit of Christianity.

Perhaps is was very well for me, as things were, that they were sent to the islands. Perhaps we ought to consider their retreat as an asylum from the fury of their foes. For the truth is, that many who were not transported were shot down, almost like wild beasts. The English, in their cruelty, appeared to regard every Indian, and the praying Indians among the rest, as a fair mark. So strangely does war change the feelings and character of men, and turn the civilized man into a monster as bad as the savages he opposes, if not worse!

Some time after this, as the war want on, the public feeling of hostility towards the praying Indians began to subside, and the General Court permitted them to return. This was in the autumn. Some went to one place, some to another. During the following summer, most of them returned to their old places of residence, and the Natick Indians to theirs among the rest.

It is worthy of remark, that an Indian teacher, by the name of Anthony, kept a school for the Indian children, at Nonantum, during the winter which immediately followed their return, in a large wigwam built for the purpose. He also delivered weekly lectures. Mr. Eliot preached to them once a fortnight. This good man did not confine his labors to Nonantum and Natick, however. He preached to the Indians at various places; especially at Brush Hill, in Milton.

But although the Indians had returned to their towns, and villages, and wigwams, they had not returned to the same state of things as formerly. They, ever after, seemed broken up, and discouraged. The friendship between them and the white men was also in part destroyed; though they still loved Mr. Eliot as a father, and a few others. We cannot wonder, I am sure, at their feelings when we consider their wrongs. Surely, as Mr. Jefferson once said in relation to our ill treatment of another race of men, -- the blacks,--a day of retribution will come. Surely the blood of the red men will be, sooner or later, "required at our hands.

------+-------
C H A P T E R T E N.
------+-------

Some of Mr. Eliot's opinions -- His contempt for wigs -- His hatred of tobacco -- His temperance in eating and drinking -- Early rising -- Sabbath keeping -- His benevolence -- Anecdotes of him -- His ignorance of domestic concerns -- Loss of his wife -- He ceases to preach -- Teaches the blacks -- Instructs a blind boy -- His death.

I HAVE already told you, that Mr. Eliot entertained some very singular opinions. One was, that the Indians were descended from the ten tribes of Israel. Another was, that all human governments should be like that suggested by Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, of which a practical example had been given at Natick. Another was, that the Hebrew language was the language of heaven!

He had also a mortal hatred of every thing like extravagance in dress. Wigs, in particular, were objects of his sovereign contempt. This, you know, was a period when, in Great Britain, especially, this article of head-dress was at the height of fashion, and almost every body admired it.

I have already observed, that Mr. Eliot was a mortal enemy of tobacco. He hated its use even worse than the use of wigs. But he could not prevail against it. People would use it; and many foolishly and wickedly use it to the present day. I cannot but hope, however, that for the last ten years, it has been going out of fashion.

Some of Mr. Eliot's other habits were as strictly in accordance with the great laws of temperance in all things as his views in relation to tobacco. His food was exceedingly pain and simple. Rich and highly-seasoned dishes he would not eat, if he could get any thing else. He seldom partook of more than one dish at a meal, even when he dined abroad. He not only practiced thus himself, but enjoined the same practice on others. Indeed, he sometimes indulged himself in considerable severity against what he called the pleasures of the table.

He was also a water-drinker, and seldom drank any other liquor. Wine he did not exactly denounce, but rarely tasted it. He held, that Christian temperance required great care and abstinence in the matter of eating as well as that of drinking; and through that if ministers would preach more upon these subjects, their labors would be more beneficial.

Mr. Eliot believed, that when men should come to be trained with sufficient regard to temperance in all things, and when physicians should better understand both the laws of health and disease, the length of human life would be greatly increased. "Doth not such a thing," he used to say, "seem prophesied in the sixty-fifth chapter of Isaiah? But if the child is to die an hundred years old, of what age shall old men be when they die?"

I have spoken of his contempt for wigs, he was also opposed to every species of extravagance or finery in dress. His own garments were not only plain, and without the least ornament, but frequently quite homely. Some have said that, like John the Baptist and Elijah, he wore a leather girdle; but it is most likely that he only word it during some of his longer missionary tours.
He was in the practice of early rising, always beginning his business in the freshness of the day. He also retired early. These habits, especially that of rising early, he was very fond of recommending to others. He was often heard to say to young students, "I pray you, look to it, that you be morning birds."

Perhaps few men have been more strict in the observance of the Sabbath than Mr. Eliot was. It is true, that he regarded every day as devoted to God. Still he thought the Sabbath had peculiar claims, and endeavored to enforce them by example and precept.

But of all things else, Mr. Eliot was most remarkable for his works of benevolence. So far as I can learn, he had no property except what he procured by his labors in Roxbury, and a few small sums sent over from England for specific purposes. And his salary was by no means large. Yet no minister, perhaps, ever gave more than he, not only of time but of money.

The amount of his charities is not indeed known, but we are told it was very great indeed. To the poor he gave with a most bountiful hand, as long as he had any thing to give. He did not wait till objects of charity came under his notice, as if by accident, but he sought them out. He was as eager to find opportunities of spending money usefully, when he had any, as most men are to get it. And when his own stock was exhausted in his charities, he would beg of others, for the same purposes. Thus it was, that he was beloved by every body; and every body, especially the poor, looked up to him as a father and a friend.

There is one anecdote of him, which, though it shows this part of his character in a very strong light, is worthy of being recorded.

"When the parish treasurer was about to pay him a portion of his yearly salary, on day, knowing what sort of many he was, he put it into a handkerchief, which he tied in several hard knots, so that he might not give it away before he got home. In passing along, however, he came to a house where the people were poor and sick, went in, and told them at once that Providence had sent him there with the means of their relief. But on attempting to untie the handkerchief, he found the knots so close, that it was almost impossible to untie them. After trying a long time to effect his object, he grew tired of it, and gave the whole to the lady of the family, saying; "Here, my dear, take it; I believe the Lord designs it all for you."

There is another curious anecdote related of him, showing how he treated those who were unfriendly to him. One of his hearers had become very much offended at him for something which he had said in the pulpit; and had openly and severely reviled him. Not long afterward, this person happened to be severely hurt in some way, upon hearing of which, Mr. Eliot sent his wife, who made very considerable pretensions to medical and surgical knowledge, to dress his wounds and take care of him. She succeeded so well in her efforts, that the man soon recovered; and went to Mr. Eliot's to thank Mrs. Eliot, and to offer her a compensation, which, however, she refused. Dinner being nearly ready, Mr. Eliot asked him to stay and dine with him, and he accepted the invitation. But during the whole conversation, not a word was said about the past; and so please was the man, that he went away quite softened, by Mr. Eliot's kindness, into friendship. What an excellent way of making friends!

Mr. Eliot was entirely ignorant of many of the common concerns of domestic life, even of those that were constantly taking place around him. He was especially negligent about property; so much so, that it is said he could hardly tell a domestic animal of his own from those of his neighbors. One day, as several of his cows stood before the door, Mrs. Eliot asked him if he knew whose cows they were. To her surprise and amusement, the good man, after casting his eyes towards them, observed, that he did not know.

Mr. Eliot was a kind husband and a most affectionate father. No family could be happier than his. He has one daughter and five sons, but they all died either in youth or middle age, except two, a son and a daughter.

It was his most earnest desire, that his sons should become ministers of the Gospel. One of them, the youngest, did indeed assist his father in the ministry at Roxbury, for a time. Of the other four, nothing, I believe, is said, except that they were all men of piety.
Three years before his death he was called to mourn the loss of his wife, who died at that time in her eighty-fourth year. This was a most severe affliction and trial to him. But he bore the loss like a Christian; and in the language of David in reference to his child, he observed at the side of the grave: "I shall go to her, but she shall not return to me."

When he was eighty-four years of age, he became unable to preach any longer, and nearly the whole care of the church devolved on his colleague. But though he could no longer speak from the pulpit to those whom he loved, he was not the man to be idle. Very far, indeed, from that. To relieve the poor, comfort the afflicted, and instruct the ignorant, was still his delight, and an object very near his heart.

Among other things, he became greatly interested in the moral welfare of the colored people around him. He saw how grossly and unaccountable they were neglected, and he resolved to make an effort, though a feeble one, in their behalf. He proposed to those families who had Negro servants, that they should send them to him once a week, to be instructed in the way of virtue and religion. "In this humble, but benevolent work," says a distinguished writer, "he rejoiced to occupy some of his last hours; but death intervened before much could be accomplished."

Another work of charity, which this venerable man undertook, in his days, and after he could no longer leave his house, was the instruction of a blind boy, who lived in the neighborhood, and who had lost his sight by falling into the fire. With the consent of the boy's friends, he took him to his own room, and taught him to repeat hymns, chapters, &c. So successful was he in his efforts, that the boy could repeat with the utmost accuracy, whole chapters from the Bible. He continued this labor of love as long as he lived.

But the hour of his dissolution was at hand. He perceived the grim messenger approaching him; though he was not by any means daunted. He retained his mental faculties, in a good degree, to the last. One of the last subjects he spoke of was the preaching of the gospel to the Indians. A dark cloud, he said, hung over these poor people, but it was his earnest prayer, that the Lord would dispel it; and that the work, which he had been enabled to begin, might go on and prosper.

The last words which Mr. Eliot was heard to utter, were "welcome joy!" And there can be little doubt, that a joy, truly welcome, awaited him; and that he now exults in the mansions of bliss. Mr. Eliot expired May 20, 1690, in the eighty-sixth year of his age.

-- F I N I S --